Yoga Sutra – Samadhi paada $ Sadhana paada
Yoga sutra is one of the classical texts in the Indian philosophical systems. The sage patanjali who codified and systematized the most profound ancient system . Like all other systems yoga sutra also made the most profoundenquiry on the meaning of life. He depicted yoga as the science of liberation; the liberation from the state of samskaratmika.
This text is divided in to four chapters. The first two chapters will be discussed in this course – Samadhi and Sadhana pada . In the samaadhi paada , consists of 51 sutra. Samadhi means the state of absorption; the liberation from the state of vritti pravaha explaining it as the restraining of chitta vrittis . In this chapter patanjali gives the aim of yoga in theoretical terms but in saadhana pada , he provides, consists 55 sutras, the practical instructions on how one can attain the state of Samadhi.
The very first three aphorism made a clear picture of what is really depicted in this classical text, YOGA SUTRA.
- atha yoganushasana
- tada drashtuh svaroope avasthanam
Sutra 1. Now , it is the final teaching of yoga
Sutra 2. Yoga is the restraint of mental operations
Sutra3. Then the staying of the perceiver in his real self
Patanjali is not the authoritarian of yoga . But he was the first man who codified and sysetamised the sreat tradition . Hence the term ‘now” has great relevance. Now it is the final teaching . The term yoga signifies the whole course of action beginning from its starting limit of material action up to the finishing end of spiritual absorption.
The final end of yoga is the restraint of mental operations. This is the core of the text and this is the definition of yoga. It is an exposition of yoga . He wants to teach what is already there. It is purely yoga vidya.
Yoga is the path to the ultimate. It is the process of turning away from the samskaratmika to the state of Samadhi ; the absolute cessation of vritti pravaha or chitta vrittis. This is the teaching yoga or the “ anusasanam” of yoga ie chitta vrittinirodhah………
And what is the result of chitta vritti nirodha or cessation of thoughts or vritti. When the vrittis are not there , the purusa is presented in his own form , the pure consciousness is always there and conscious of themselves.
ETHICS IN VEDANTA
Topics to be discussed
- Dilemma – “ to be or not tobe” based on Karma philosophy
- Law of life – self service , Honesty, charity, Freewill
- Eternal law and selfish desire
- Sravana , manana, Nidhidhyasana
- The liberation
- Faith and prayer
- Attachment and detachment
- Ashtanga yoga
BHAGAVAT GITA AND FOUR STREAMS OF YOGA
One of the greatest influential philosophical text in the world – Bhagavat Gita which has shaped the doubting mind in to a state of crystal clear purity. It starts with the universal dilemma of “ to be or not to be” and ends with answering all the questions regarding meaning of life and what is the ultimate truth and How can we attain the truth? The principal teaching of this text is the essence of all upanishadic wisdom ; beautifully unfolds all the problems which human beings enquire.
Arjuna , the representative of entire society, confuses with the choice . “ choose well from our choice” reverberates in the doubting mind of Arjuna.- ‘fight’ or ‘quit’. Arjuna raise this doubt to Lord Krishna . Then the teachings of karma and knowledge starts.
The word karma means action which are performed without any expectation or attachment .The great teachings of the four paths of yoga starts from karma philosophy. We have the right to perform but not supposed to entitled with the result of that performance. We should be selfless , mindful and unattached
The word jnana means knowledge. The very important and subtle aspect of wisdom is clearly depicted in this chapter. A person truly established in the path of jnana yoga is free from all worries , illegitimate problems, and attachments. The knowledge is timeless.
It is the path of devotion , love , compassion service to god and others. It is the discipline of the mind in keeping with the love for the absolute.
Is the path of controlling the mind . Patanjalis’s yoga sutra is one of the texts regarding the texts of controlling the mind.